Imperial Collage Healthcare

Free light chains

Test Background
The haematological neoplasms that arise through primarily tumours of the B-cell haematopoietic lineage and subsequent plasma cells comprise a wide range of disorders that include the multiple myelomas, Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia, AL amyloidosis (primary systemic amyloidosis), heavy chain disease and the plasmacytomas. Disease is typically characterised by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins, their free light chain components or fragments thereof, and diagnosis and staging of disease progression often employs the systematic assay of these specific proteins over time.

Clinical Indications
Serum FLC assay is of greater clinical utility than urinary BJP assay in diagnosis of non-Ig secretory multiple myeloma Stratification of risk for development of multiple myeloma in MGUS cohorts Staging of established malignancy Assessment of response to chemotherapeutic intervention (especially with regard to AL amyloidosis, light chain and non-secretory multiple myeloma) Prognostic indicator/tumour marker for detection of residual tumour or cancer recurrence

Reference Range
Free kappa chains: 3.3-19.4 mg/L Free lambda chains: 5.7-26.3 mg/L Kappa:lambda ratio:0.26-1.65

Sample Required
SST (gold top) or serum (red top)

Sample Volume
0.5 mL


Stable at 2-8oC for 72 hours. Please freeze pending dispatch for analysis.

Sample can be sent by first class post.

Turnaround Time
1 week


Grossly haemolysed samples are unsuitable for this assay.

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