Kidney stones are solid accretions of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. These are subsequently expelled in the urine stream, leading to ureteric obstruction and distension. Stones form around a central nidus from which a crystalline structure expands and are typically derived of calcium salts (of which calcium oxalate predominates). Other examples of calculi include the (urea-splitting) bacterially-derived struvite (Mg, NH4 and PO4), uric acid and cystine.
All renal calculi should be analysed Symptoms of nephrolithiases include: renal colic, (acute and spasmodic flank pain) nausea, UTI, haematuria and vomiting
Ideally 10 mg
Up to 3 weeks
Not currently performed in house; this is a referred test. Full clinical details should be supplied.