Renal stones affect on average between 12-15 % of Caucasians (this figure varies among other population groups). Recurrence rates of up to 50 % within 5 years are not uncommon. Risk factors for recurrent renal calculi include low urine output, impaired renal function, hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia, in addition to increased uric acid turnover, hypercalcaemia and hyperoxaluria.
|15-50 mmol/24 h|
24 hour urine collection acidified
24 hour urine collection