Imperial Collage Healthcare

Glucose (blood)


Test Background
Glucose serves as the main source of energy for the body and its levels are tightly regulated by a variety of hormones, of which insulin is perhaps the most well known. The absence of insulin (type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)) or insensitivity/resistance to its activity (type 2 DM) are characterised by hyperglycaemic states that initiate micro- and macro-vascular disease. Hypoglycaemia is a common presentation of (neonatal) inborn error of metabolism, insulinoma, factitious or over-administration of exogenous insulin, states of cachexia and hypopituitarism.


Clinical Indications

  • Diagnosis of DM, impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance
  • Monitoring of established DM
  • Diagnosis of metabolic disorders, endocrine neoplasia and hypopituitarism


Reference Range

Over 4 weeks old, fasting : 3-6 mmol/L
Over 4 weeks old, random : 3.0-7.8 mmol/L
Less than 4 weeks old : 2.2-7.8 mmol/L


Sample Required
Fluoride oxalate (grey top)


Sample Volume
0.5 mL


Turnaround Time
1 day


Notes
2x random glucose >11.1 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
2x fasting glucose >7.0 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2h postprandial >11.1 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
Fasting glucose <7.0 mmol/L AND 2h postprandial OGTT 7.8-11.1 mmol/L: impaired glucose tolerance.
Fasting glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/L AND/OR 2h postprandial OGTT <7.8 mmol/L: impaired fasting glucose.

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