Test BackgroundGlucose serves as the main source of energy for the body and its levels are tightly regulated by a variety of hormones, of which insulin is perhaps the most well known. The absence of insulin (type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)) or insensitivity/resistance to its activity (type 2 DM) are characterised by hyperglycaemic states that initiate micro- and macro-vascular disease. Hypoglycaemia is a common presentation of (neonatal) inborn error of metabolism, insulinoma, factitious or over-administration of exogenous insulin, states of cachexia and hypopituitarism.
|Over 4 weeks old, fasting||:|| 3-6 mmol/L
|Over 4 weeks old, random||:|| 3.0-7.8 mmol/L
|Less than 4 weeks old||:||2.2-7.8 mmol/L|
Sample Required Fluoride oxalate (grey top)
Sample Volume 0.5 mL
Turnaround Time 1 day
Notes2x random glucose >11.1 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
2x fasting glucose >7.0 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2h postprandial >11.1 mmol/L: diagnostic of DM.
Fasting glucose <7.0 mmol/L AND 2h postprandial OGTT 7.8-11.1 mmol/L: impaired glucose tolerance.
Fasting glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/L AND/OR 2h postprandial OGTT <7.8 mmol/L: impaired fasting glucose.