Imperial Collage Healthcare

Free light chains


Test Background
The haematological neoplasms that arise through primarily tumours of the B-cell haematopoietic lineage and subsequent plasma cells comprise a wide range of disorders that include the multiple myelomas, Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia, AL amyloidosis (primary systemic amyloidosis), heavy chain disease and the plasmacytomas. Disease is typically characterised by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins, their free light chain components or fragments thereof, and diagnosis and staging of disease progression often employs the systematic assay of these specific proteins over time.


Clinical Indications

  • Serum FLC assay is of greater clinical utility than urinary BJP assay in diagnosis of non-Ig secretory multiple myeloma
  • Stratification of risk for development of multiple myeloma in MGUS cohorts
  • Staging of established malignancy
  • Assessment of response to chemotherapeutic intervention (especially with regard to AL amyloidosis, light chain and non-secretory multiple myeloma)
  • Prognostic indicator/tumour marker for detection of residual tumour or cancer recurrence


Reference Range

Free kappa chains : 3.3-19.4 mg/L
Free lambda chains : 5.7-26.3 mg/L
Kappa:lambda ratio : 0.26-1.65


Sample Required
SST (gold top) or serum (red top)


Sample Volume
1 mL


Turnaround Time
1 week


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