Imperial Collage Healthcare


Test Background
Citrate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In urine it forms soluble complexes with cations such as Ca++, Mg++ and Fe++, thus inhibiting urinary crystallisation and stone formation. Low levels of urinary citrate excretion (<1.0 mmol/24 h) may be found in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis, malabsorption syndrome and urinary tract infection.

Clinical Indications

  • Monitoring therapy for renal stones
  • Identifying decreased urinary citrate as a risk factor for stone formation
  • Investigation of renal tubular acidosis

Reference Range

See report

Sample Required
Random urine sample in universal container or 24 hour urine collection (acidified optional)

Sample Volume
Random urine: 8 mL
or 24 hour urine collection

Turnaround Time
Up to 6 weeks

May be done on the same sample as oxalate.
Not currently performed in house; this is a referred test.

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