Imperial Collage Healthcare

Calcium (blood)


Test Background
The majority of body calcium is bone-associated and circulating levels reflect bone turnover and disease. Circulating calcium is under the control of parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid gland mediates increased serum calcium as a function of PTH production. Primary hyperparathyroidism reflects adenoma/carcinoma or hyperplastic syndromes, leading to excess serum calcium as a function of bone mineralisation and increased renal reabsorption/intestinal uptake. Secondary forms typically reflect renal failure.


Clinical Indications

  • Increased calcium and reduced phosphate typically reflects primary hyperparathyroidism, while raised phosphate is seen in secondary forms
  • Raised calcium is seen in osteomalacia, osteoporosis, Paget’s disease and osteolytic lesions secondary to bone metastasis
  • Reduced serum calcium is associated with hypomagnesaemia, rickets and vitamin D deficiency
  • Diagnosis and assessment of recurrent urolithiasis patients in addition to monitoring the effectiveness of thiazide therapy to lessen calciuria in known stone formers


Reference Range

Less than 1 month : 2.0-2.7 mmoll/L
1 month-16 years : 2.2-2.7 mmol/L
Greater than 16 years : 2.15-2.60 mmol/L


Sample Required
SST (gold top)


Sample Volume
0.5 mL


Turnaround Time
1 day


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