Imperial Collage Healthcare


Test Background
Trace elements can be essential or toxic. Trace element toxicity can occur as a result of occupational exposure, environmental exposure or iatrogenic toxicity. Any organ can be affected: the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, muscles or circulatory system. All elements can be toxic in excess. Those most commonly associated with toxicity include: aluminium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, barium, germanium, tellurium, tin, antimony, osmium, uranium.

Clinical Indications
Acute exposure can result in cardiac and renal failure. Other symptoms from exposure include bone disease and possible liver disease.

Reference Range
Non-smokers: <27 nmol/L Smokers: <54 nmol/L Urine: <10 nmol/mmol creatinine

Sample Required
Blood: EDTA (lavender top) or heparin (green top) Urine: universal container for random sample or 24 hour collection

Sample Volume
Blood: 0.5 mL Urine: 0.5 mL or 24 hour urine collection

Turnaround Time
2 weeks

There are increased levels of cadmium in smokers.

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