Test Background Trace elements can be essential or toxic. Trace element toxicity can occur as a result of occupational exposure, environmental exposure or iatrogenic toxicity. Any organ can be affected: the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, muscles or circulatory system. All elements can be toxic in excess. Those most commonly associated with toxicity include: aluminium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, barium, germanium, tellurium, tin, antimony, osmium, uranium.
Clinical Indications Acute exposure can result in cardiac and renal failure. Other symptoms from exposure include bone disease and possible liver disease.
Reference Range Non-smokers: <27 nmol/L Smokers: <54 nmol/L Urine: <10 nmol/mmol creatinine
Sample Required Blood: EDTA (lavender top) or heparin (green top) Urine: universal container for random sample or 24 hour collection
Sample Volume Blood: 0.5 mL Urine: 0.5 mL or 24 hour urine collection
Turnaround Time 2 weeks
Notes There are increased levels of cadmium in smokers.