Test Background Trace elements can be essential or toxic. Trace element toxicity can occur as a result of occupational exposure, environmental exposure or iatrogenic toxicity. Any organ can be affected: the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, muscles or circulatory system. All elements can be toxic in excess. Those most commonly associated with toxicity include: aluminium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, barium, germanium, tellurium, tin, antimony, osmium, uranium.
Clinical Indications Bismuth toxicity can occur as a result of iatrogenic toxicity for ulcers.
Reference Range <1 nmol/L
Sample Required EDTA (lavender top) or heparin (green top)